The Entscheidungsnavi offers guidelines for a decision-making process based on all the essential findings from modern decision-making research on how to achieve a high-quality decision. The focus here is on the value-focused thinking approach of Prof. Ralph Keeney. This approach is characterized by a proactive approach to decisions (step 1), a very reflective analysis of values and objectives (step 2) and a creative search for alternatives (step 3). The key research findings of the Nobel Prize laureate Prof. Daniel Kahneman are also considered in the Entscheidungsnavi. The tool contains many hints and tips on how to avoid the psychological pitfalls and distortions known from descriptive decision research in the impact prognoses (step 4). Added to all of this is the fifth step of the Entscheidungsnavi, a comparison of the analytical- and intuitive assessment to bring your head and gut feeling together. The result is a five-step decision-making process that we call “Reflective Decision-making”.


Fields of application of reflective decision-making

A reflective decision-making process, as implemented in the Entscheidungsnavi, can be valuable in all decisions. This includes all important personal- and professional decisions. Companies or consulting firms benefit from this approach if they value transparency and participation in addition to high-quality decisions. All group decisions, both small and large, can benefit from such a structured approach because it increases both the efficiency and the quality of the result. Finally, the process can also be applied to any form of opinion-forming in all social or political issues. 


The book

This book is suitable for anyone who would like to learn more about the concept of “Reflective Decision-making”. It gives you food for thought and explains the methods that can be used to improve your decision-making behavior. These methods are also used in the Entscheidungsnavi. The content is illustrated with an example of the employed engineer Alex, who is no longer satisfied with his career and is looking for better life plans.  It also contains valuable information on how a moderator can lead group decisions in a more targeted manner and how to get a grip on conflicts. 

von Nitzsch, Rüdiger & Methling, Florian (2021) „Reflektiert Entscheiden: Kompetent mit Kopf und Bauch“, Frankfurter Allgemeine Buch. | ISBN: 396251094X


Further reading recommendations

  • Hammond, John S. ; Keeney, Ralph L. & Raiffa, Howard (2015) “Smart Choices: A Practical Guide to Making Better Decisions”, Harvard Business Review Press.
  • Kahneman, Daniel ; Sibony, Olivier & Sunstein, Cass R. (2021) “Noise: A Flaw in Human Judgment”, Little, Brown and Company.
  • Kahneman, Daniel (2012) “Thinking, Fast and Slow”, Macmillan US.
  • Keeney, Ralph L. (2020) “Give Yourself a Nudge: Helping Smart People Make Smarter Personal and Business Decisions”, Cambridge University Press.
  • Keeney, Ralph L. (1992) “Value-Focused Thinking: A Path to Creative Decisionmaking”.
  • Spetzler, Carl ; Winter, Hannah & Meyer, Jennifer (2016) “Decision Quality: Value Creation from Better Business Decisions”, Wiley.